The Seashore Hypothesis, or Waterside Ape Theory, of human evolution, and African pre-history.

 The Author's Travels in full-length Books and Collected Stories.

Most are also available as eBooks



THE SEASHORE HYPOTHESIS (now known as The Waterwside Ape Theory as expounded by Sir David Attenborough in September 2016 on BBC Radio 4)

The author studied the evolution of mankind in Africa for over 60 years. Travelling about the continent he was always aware of the relevance of the origin of mankind and the large mammals that have evolved in Africa with its unique geography, spanning the equator and bordering the Indian Ocean.

This is an extraordinarily important work which was published in the public domain on the internet in 1999. In print for the first time in 2007, the principal role of the eastern African Indian Ocean littoral and seafood nutrition is central to the hypothesis. Periodic sojourning by hominins at the seashore was the driving force of human evolution, modified by selection (and resulting extinctions) in the lacustrine and riverine environments of the Great Rift Valley and adjacent savannah. Also featured is the particular importance of seashores as endless highways for hominin migrations as ice-ages waxed and waned, thus making possible the spread of our ancestors around Eurasia, Australasia and eventually into the Americas.

This Third Revised Edition published in 2017, has been brought up-to-date. Sir David Attenborough's recognition of a seashore dimension in 2016 may assist with wider understanding leading to scientific examination of a broader, encompassing scenario for human evolution.

The Aquatic Ape Theory (AAT), as the Waterside or Seashore Hypothesis is widely known, has been largely ignored by conventional science and vilified by a number of commentators. Both the savannah and seashore hypotheses have to include reasoned speculation. Over the years they have been presented with varying degrees of rigour; the difference being the steadily increasing fossil support of the savannah version whereas fossils on the hugely changing seashores over 5-7 million years may never be found. This book proposes that abundant seashore nutrition and the niche lifestyle drove and progressed evolution which was honed and selected in the varied habitats of the Great Rift Valley and its extensions. Why are the savannah and seashore or waterside hypotheses considered to be mutually-excluding, and antagonistic? During the enormous period of five million years and more the dramatic and unique evolution of humanity needed the continuing intricate combination and interaction of both scenarios for success. It is one story, not two alternatives.


In this book the author has traced the impact and effects of the Indian Ocean trading system on sub-Saharan peoples. During the last 5,000 years there have been relentless pressures on the native peoples of Africa from northern hemisphere civilisations. The Neolithic Agricultural Revolution and metallurgy forced the evolution of sedentary society, urbanisation and political complexity. The core-peoples of Africa, the source of all people on Earth, were drawn into this turmoil primarily by trade which diffuses knowledge and practice. The Indian Ocean provided much impetuous.



Since the 1950s, the author has enjoyed wilderness travel in Africa and he wrote books and stories about the more important of these several expeditions. Always, there was a serious goal in addition to the enjoyment of adventure travelling. Montgomery was seeking a fuller understanding of history by seeing where it happened.

THE REFLECTED FACE OF AFRICA, published in the United Kingdom and South Africa in 1988, is the story of a journey in an overlanding truck from Johannesburg to England in 1985/86. The route in fourteen countries proceeded through Central and eastern Africa, the Congo and along the Sahel before traversing the Sahara. This revised and expanded Second Edition is now available.

A book of colour illustrations complimenting this text book is also available on the author's page at www.Lulu.com.

TWO SHORES OF THE OCEAN, published in 1992, is the second of a planned series, culminating in the 'Aquatic Ape' books. This book traces the authorМs travels in India and eastern Africa, looking closely at some little-known history of this region, seminal to humanity, and opening the authors debate on the Seashore Hypothesis, or 'Aquatic Ape Theory' as it is popularly known. Out of print for many years, in order to maintain the continuity of the author's work this book is available here in a second edition.

A book of colour illustrations complimenting this text book is also available on the author's page on www.Lulu.com.

CREST OF A WAVE This book, first drafted in 1966 and re-written in 1993 is published for the first time here. It is the story of the authorМs 1965 journey in his own Landrover with a companion from London to Durban, South Africa, via North, East and Central Africa. This safari took place during the birth of the general African post-colonial period. This book now has historical importance besides being a fascinating story of young people adventuring in a continent whose character has changed irrevocably. Now at last available for purchase in print.

A book of colour illustrations complimenting this text book is also available on the author's page on www.Lulu.com.

MUD, SANDS AND SEAS This is an anthology of short stories and essays which fill in the cracks between the author's principal journeys described in his other books, available from this site. Diaries were kept during most of the author's safaris. Many of these were made into short stories. These traveller's tales span the years from 1949 to 2007 during which great changes occurred. These stories reflect those changes and provide snapshots of times gone forever.

GOLDEN RHINO This is a book of traveller's tales written as a precursor to the scholarly books on the Seashore Hypothesis and African pre-history. It tells stories of travelling in Africa, much of it for fun but there was a serious purpose. The author was honing his knowledge with a definite objective - to understand and enlarge his intuitive feeling for the origins of mankind and the mysteries of African pre-history. The problem besetting historians of Africa is that the native peoples south of the Sahara had a complex yet illiterate culture. Only recently has archaeology and reasoning brought it closer to reality.

CLOSING THE CIRCLE This handsome hardback book 'closes the circle' of the author's forty year odyssey examining the exploration of the world by Portuguese pioneers of globalization. This particular Portuguese phenomenon during the 15th - 19th centuries is examined with new insights, especially the Kondratieff wave hypothesis of global economic cycles expanded by Prof Tessaleno Devesas. The author has visited 32 places of special importance to the Portuguese pioneering explorers in Africa, South America, Asia and the home base, beginning at the "Terra da Boa Gente" in Mozambique in 1969. There are descriptions and his traveller's tales for every one. He explains how he became enthralled by this subject through his friendship with Tito Larcher.

HULETT - A Personal History of Natal Pioneers This book is based on one produced for the 150th anniversary of the landing of Sir James Liege Hulett in Natal. It has been thoroughly revised from research in the last few years to include major corrections to previously published biography. It is a short history but includes the best available account of family origins in England. There has not been an attempt to describe all branches of the Hulett family in Natal, because there are too many. But the founder's activities are outlined and the author's own branch is explored with its links to other families. It is an important addition to local colonial history and, especially, Hulett family genealogy.


BUY ALL OF THESE BOOKS, and Others available from my personal link with Lulu.

Buy directly from the Publisher at this personal link :Lulu.com.

Or selected titles from AMAZON at www.amazon.com (Also available at other online retailers.)


The Introduction and two sample chapters of Seashore Man and African Eve may be downloaded here. This excerpt is an A4 file in PDF format of about 1 Mb.



Denis Montgomery journeyed throughout Africa on business and vacation and to research historical places for fifty years, and he recorded his fascination with the continent of his birth, its history and geography. These journeys allowed the accumulation of varied insights into the culture, lifestyles and evolution of mankind. Frequent sojourn in African wilderness enabled a greater understanding of geography in its grandest meaning.

Of Irish descent from both parents, he was born in South Africa in 1934 into a pioneering colonial family and has lived and worked in several parts of Africa, in England and Brazil. He retired to rural Suffolk, England, in 1998, but continued his travels until he passed away after a short illness in April 2020. His books remain available on

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